Who Was Mohammed?

Mohammed, we have all heard this name before or have met someone with this name. One day, when we talk about Mohammed, we are in fact talking about one of the greatest people in the history of humanity and the most influential in us until this moment, as there are nearly two billion people,  Adherents of the Islamic religion that Mohammed brought, and Islam is the fastest spreading religion in the world today, so we will learn in this article about Mohammed and some events of his life.

He was “Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Abdul Mutalleb,” His father “Abdullah”  married “Amina Bint Wahab” and she gave birth to Mohammed, and as agreed by most Muslim scholars, His father died when Mohammed was in his mother’s womb. Mohammed was born on 22nd April 570 AD. 

His mother died when he was six years old, he had orphan parents, then moved to live with his grandfather Abdul Mutalleb, who took great care of him. Then, his grandfather died at the age of eight, so he moved to live with his uncle Abu Taleb, who was a merchant, he took Muhammad with him on his business trips, and on one of the trips, one of the monks told his uncle Abu Taleb that Mohammed would have a great future.

Mohammed worked as a sheep herder as a boy, and later worked in commerce with his uncle.

Khadija bint Khoeld, who became Mohammed’s first wife later, was a woman with a lot of money and high percentages, who worked in commerce. When she heard that Mohammed was an honest man and active in his work, generous in his manners, she secured him by trading her money with a follower of her who was called “Messara.” Mohammed, then, went out as a merchant to the Levant and sat under the shadow of a tree close to a monk — the monk told “Messara” that whoever sat under that tree was only a prophet, and when they returned, he told Mrs. Khadija what the monk explained. During the period of “Mohammed” and “Khadija’s relations,” she was impressed by Mohammed’s personality and his honesty at work and good manners, so “Khadija” proposed to marry “Mohammed” and they got then married. At the time of marriage, Khadija was 40 years old and Mohammed was 25 years old.

In the month of Ramadan, Mohammed isolated himself in the cave of Hera, away from the people and from all falsehoods, where the Arabs at that time were pagans worshipping idols. Here, he was isolating himself close to complete righteousness, thinking about the greatness of the true Lord in heaven and his creativity in creating the universe. While one day, he was thinking about God in the same place, an angel came from heaven called “Gabriel”, and the first verse came down in the Qur’an, which is considered the holy book of Muslims, where the angel said to Mohammed “Read”, Mohammad replied, “I’m not a reader”, (as he was illiterate and he remained illiterate implying that he couldn’t read or write all his life.) so the angel repeated the request three times, and then said “Read in the name of your Lord who created”, so Muhammad returned to his wife Khadija and he was in shock because of what occurred with him, so his wife reassured him and brought him to her cousin, who was called “Waraqa Ibn Nofel,” who had converted to Christianity and had retired people, and Waraqa that this is the same revelation that came down on the Prophet Moses before. Shortly after a period of this meeting,  “ Waraqa Ibn Nofel” died. Days later, during Mohammed’s worshipping in the cave of Hara, the angel himself came down again, and revealed new verses. These verses were explained to Mohammed, that he had been chosen from God, that he should spread the message and invite on people to worship the One Lord in heaven and leave idol worship, hence Mohammed’s journey to preach the religion of Islam and invite people to him.

The conditions of inviting people to Islam in Mecca did not stabilize because of the spread of idol worship during that time, so it was difficult to call for the message of God directly, so he began to invite his family and friends and who saw his honesty and desire to know the truth. His wife “Khadija,” his cousin “Ali ibn Abi Talib,” and his loyal friend “Abu Bakr al-Siddiq,” were the first people who believed him and followed him and supported his call. Abu Bakr helped him spread his call secretly, so he handed over many people, including well-known companions, (who will have a big role later in spreading the Islamic religion.) He then continued his secret call for three years.

After three years of spreading the message secretly, the Prophet Muhammad began to spread his call in public, calling on his tribe from the Quraysh tribe first, so he went up on Safa mountain and openly invited them to leave idol worship and to follow the only true God. Despite his efforts, they broke away from him and mocked him, but he never stopped calling for the worship of one God, and his uncle Abu Talib had taken it upon himself to protect the Prophet Mohammed from those who do not believe in him and try to stop him, even though he did not believe in him either.

After that, the Quraysh tribes agreed to assassinate the Prophet and all those who believe in him and surround them in a place called “Shia’ab Bani Hashim”, and the leaders of Quraysh ensured that they will stop dealing with them and stop selling and buying among them, and not to marry them or marry them. These items were then documented in a painting that was hung on the wall of the Kaaba, and this was one of the most difficult periods in the life of the Prophet Mohammed and his believers from his family and friends. The siege lasted three years,  the siege was cancelled after the consultation of some leaders of Quraish, who ended the siege and tore the painting containing the terms of the siege.

Later, his wife Khadija, who served as the bond of the Prophet and had died three years before his migration to Madina, and in the same year his uncle “ Abu Talib “ died as well due to a dangerous  disease, it was him whom was protecting the prophet from the attacks of the polytheists.

Later, some leaders of Quraish requested Abu Talib to ask Mohammed to stop preaching his religion, and they offered him to give Mohammed money and anything he wishes, so his uncle Abu Talib explained to him what they offered him, but Mohammad did not pay attention to that and categorically rejected it, by saying, “O my uncle! By God if they put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left on condition that I abandon this course, until God has made me victorious, or I perish therein, I would not abandon it.”  and then in the same year his uncle Abu Talib died, and this year he was called “The Year of Grief”, because in the same year his uncle and wife, who were supporting and protecting him, died.

The Prophet Mohammed then went to Taif, which is a region in the Arabian peninsula, to call on the Tah tribes to unite God after the death of his uncle and wife, and he was harmed by Quraysh, asking the Taif’s tribes to protect his message and protect him, and to believe in what came, but they did not respond and met him with ridicule and mockery.

The prophet then went to Abyssinia, which is now called “Ethiopia”, which was under Christian rule, there he went there informer of his companions to Ethiopia which was ruled by a just king, and they came out as immigrants, and this was the first migration of Muslims. There were approximately eighty-three people. When Quraysh knew of the immigration of Muslims, they sent two of them carrying gifts to the King of Ethiopia, Al-Najashi, asking him to respond to the immigrant Muslims in protest that they had left their previous religion and went to worship one God, and the king refused their request and asked the Muslims to indicate their position. He spoke of the Muslims, Muhammad’s cousin, who is called “Jafar ibn Abi Talib”, explaining to him that the Prophet Muhammad had guided them to the path of goodness and kept them away through disbelief and vice. Not the Son of God, the King believed the Muslims, and Quraysh replied again.

It happened to come to the Prophet Muhammad, thirteen Christians to enter Islam and unite God and not to involve him or fall into sin and adultery, so they entered Islam in a place called “Aqaba”, and after a year in the same place came to Muhammad about seventy-three men and two Christian women to enter the religion of Islam in the same place and enter and believe Muhammad.

And now the life of Muhammad begins in Medina, where Muslims immigrated there in order to preserve their religion and themselves, and Medina is located in the Arabian Peninsula as well, which is considered the holiest place for Muslims after Mecca, and many people followed him when he decided to emigrate, most of them were companions, and many left  their money and property in Makkah and were seized by the pagans in Makkah, and so the Muslims followed each other until Makkah became almost empty of Muslims, which led to the fear of the nobles of the Quraysh and the pagans due to the consequences of the migration of Muslims. Before the Prophet Muhammad migrated, the nobles of Mecca from all the tribes gathered in the Dar Al-Nadwa attempted to find a way to rid of Muhammad, so they came to a consensus, that they would take one person from each tribe and hit Muhammad one man’s blow at night, so that his blood would be lost among the tribes, and his tribe could not avenge him.

On that night, God permitted His Messenger to migrate, and Abu Bakr took a companion, and placed “Ali Ibn Abi Talib,” whose cousin was sleeping in his bed, so the Messenger went out with Abu Bakr intending to cave the bull, and when the pagans learned of the rulers of Mecca that their plan had failed, they began to search  On his behalf, until some of the polytheists approached near the cave in which Muhammad and Abu Bakr were inside, and Abu Bakr became very afraid, but Muhammad reassured him, and remained in the cave for three days until the conditions stabilized and the pagans returned to Mecca, so Muhammad and Abu Bakr continued their march to Medina, and within  Fourteen nights, the Prophet and his companions built the Quba Mosque, which is the first mosque in the history of Islam, and after that Muhammad began establishing the foundations of the Islamic state.

The residents of Medina were mostly Christian supporters, and the city needed a law to regulate it and guarantee the rights of its members, including immigrants, supporters and Jews, so the Messenger made brotherhood between immigrants and supporters, so the state can only be established by uniting its members and establishing the relationship between them on the basis of the love of God and His Messenger the path of the call, and thus the Messenger of God made their fellowships linked to their faith, and fraternity granted individuals to bear each other’s responsibility.

The Prophet Muhammad fought a number of invasions and battles with the aim of establishing truth and calling people to unite God Almighty by removing obstacles that prevent spreading the call. It should be noted that the conquests fought by the Prophet were a practical example in showing the image of the virtuous fighter and respecting humanity, after the relations began to intensify between  The Messenger of God in Medina and the tribes from outside it, which led to the occurrence of a number of fighting between the various parties, and the fighting that the Messenger witnessed in the invasion, which he did not witness, was called secret, and in every victory for the Muslims, the Messenger or his followers did not force anyone to convert to Islam and allowed Christians and Jews  To practice their religious beliefs with complete freedom, and the following is a description of some details of the invasions that the Prophet – may prayers and peace be upon him – waged with those of the Muslims with him.

The Great Battle of Badr: It happened in the second year of the Hijra, which means 2 years after he moved with his followers to Madina, on the seventeenth of Ramadan, and the reason for it was the Muslim’s objection to the Quraish convoy heading to Mecca under the leadership of Abu Sufyan.  And thirteen men, and ended with the victory of the Muslims, and seventy of the polytheists were killed and seventy others were arrested, and they were freed with money, and the reason why Muslims objected the convoy of Quraish is because of that Quraish seized all Muslim’s money and properties in Mecca.

The Battle of Uhud: It took place in the third year of the Hijra, on Saturday corresponding to the fifteenth of Shawwal, and was caused by the Quraysh’s desire to take revenge on the Muslims when it happened on the day of Badr.  The mountain, and when the Muslims thought that they were victorious, they started collecting the spoils, so Khalid bin Al-Walid, who was at the time on polytheism, seized the opportunity, and circumvented the Muslims from behind the mountain and fought them, which led to the victory of the polytheists over the Muslims.

The battle of Al-Ahzab : It took place in the fifth year of the Hijra, and the reason for it was that the chiefs of the Jews of Banu Nadir went to the Quraysh to incite them to fight the Prophet Mohammed and his followers, and Salman al-Farisi who was one of the prophet’s companions, indicated to the Prophet to dig a trench. Therefore, this battle is also called the Battle of the Khanate, and it ended with the victory of the Muslims after the Jews who were living with Muslims betrayed Muslims and broke the treaty that they had made previously, and they allowed the polytheists to enter the city to kill Mohammed and his followers, when the prophet heard of that, he prayed to God and said to the Muslims “ The Victory is coming “, and after that, the lord had sent a strong storm that destroyed the polytheist’s camps which were in front of the Muslim’s city “Madina“, and this miracle is considered one of the prophet’s miracles in the Islamic faith.

The Battle of Al-Hudaybiyah: It took place in the sixth year of the Hijra of the month of Dhu al-Qi’dah, that is after the Prophet saw in his sleep that he and those with him were going to the Sacred House while they were safe, shaving their heads.  ;  Quraish knew that they did not want to fight, and they reached Al-Hudaybiyah except that the Quraysh prevented them from entering, cause the sacred house was under the polytheist’s control in that time, so the Prophet sent one of his companions “ Uthman bin Affan “ to inform them of the truth of their coming, and it was rumored that he was killed, but they found out later that he wasn’t killed, so the Prophet sent another messenger to them which was also one of his companions “Suhail Bin Amro“ in order to make a peace treaty between Muslims and the polytheists, and they agreed to stop war for 10 years, and for the Muslims to turn back those who come to them from the Quraysh, and for the Quraish not to turn back those who come to it from the Muslims, and the Muslims dissolved from their religious rituals and returned to Madina.

The Battle of the Conquest: It took place in the eighth year of the migration of the month of Ramadan, which is the same as the conquest of Mecca, and the reason for the conquest was the assault of Bani Bakr who were one of the polytheist’s allies, against Bani Khuza’a who were one of the prophet’s allies and the killing of a number of them. So the Prophet arranged himself and his army with a number of 10,000 knights to go and conquest Mecca cause the polytheists broke the peace treaty between them after 2 years only, when he reached, no one expected his coming, the prophet did not want to kill anyone so he told them everyone who doesn’t want to fight to enter his house and they will be safe, so everyone entered his house and no battle occurred there, the Prophet entered Mekkah, praising God for the clear conquest, touring the Holy Kaaba “the sacred house“, breaking the idols around it, and praying at the Kaaba, and also he forgave the polytheists tribes of Mecca for all their crimes against Muslims, and he became the leader of Mecca.

The year of delegations:

More than seventy delegations from the tribes came after the conquest of Mecca to the Messenger of God to declare their conversion to Islam, for example: 

Abdul Qais delegation, and they arrived twice;  The first is in the fifth year of the migration, and the second in the year of delegations.

Doss delegation, as they arrived at the beginning of the seventh year of migration when the Messenger of God was in Khaybar.

Sada’a delegation, in the eighth year of Hijra “migration“ .

Thaqif and Azra delegations, in the ninth year of Hijra.

And also the prophet Mohammed sent an invitations to convert to Islam to many leaders and kings, like Hercules the emperor of Romans, Kousra the emperor of Persians, and Najashi the king of Ethiopia, and some other leaders.

And in his life time, he could unite the whole Arabian peninsula under his control, and most of people there converted to Islam and accepted it.

Hijjat Al-wada’a: The Messenger of God expressed his desire to perform the Hajj, and showed his intention to do so. He then left the city, and walked towards the sacred house, and delivered a sermon that later became known as the farewell sermon, and its contents include: warning against usury, and the need to adhere to what is mentioned in the Holy Qur’an and all forms of good morals, and spread love and cooperation between people.

The Farewell Sermon: Prophet Mohammed said some important things in his last speech before death, and the most important part of his speech was: 

All humans are descended from Adam and Eve,”  Prophet Mohammed said in his last known public speech. “There is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab, or of a non-Arab over an Arab, and no superiority of a white person over a black person or of a black person over a white person, except on the basis of personal piety and righteousness.”

The Prophet’s Death:

The Prophet Mohammed passed away on Monday, the twelfth of the month of Rabi’a al-Awwal in the eleventh year of the Prophet’s migration, 8th June 633 AD,  Leaving behind him the greatest imprint in the history of mankind, as he is now classified as the most influential person in history, and the Islamic religion is the fastest spreading religion in the world, leaving in the hearts of Muslims all kinds of good virtues, good morals and a healthy life by urging them to stay away from everything that harms them, a lot of Muslims and non-Muslims are influenced by the Prophet Mohammed because of his beautiful personality, good manners, his treatment of people in the best way, his propagation of moral values ​​among people, and he left one of the most influential book in our world today, which is the Holy Quran.

Some of Mohammed’s sayings: 

  • “Speak good or remain silent.”
  • “Be kind, for whenever kindness becomes part of something, it beautifies it. Whenever it is.   taken from something, it leaves it tarnished.”
  • “A good man treats women with honour.”
  • “There is reward for kindness to every living thing.”
  • “A kind word is a form of charity.”
  • “When a thing disturbs the peace of your heart give it up.”
  • “Remember your own faults when you want to mention of others.”
  • “Seek knowledge from cradle to the grave.”
  • “The greatest of richness is the richness of the soul.”
  • “You do not do evil to those who do evil to you, but you deal with them with forgiveness and kindness.”

Mohammed

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